James Robinson

Years in prison:
Year of crime:
Year conviction was overturned:

Patrick Molloy, James Robinson, Michael Hickey, and Vincent Hickey (the Bridgewater 4) were convicted of the murder of Carl Bridgewater who was shot dead while delivering a newspaper to a house. Malloy and Hickey were said to have made admissions to the murder. On appeal, evidence was introduced that cast doubt on the veracity of these confessions. Mr Malloy said he had been tricked into making a confession after he was shown a statement purportedly made by Hicky (but likely to have been forged). Electrostatic document analysis tested later suggested police had created such a statement with Vincent Hickey’s forced signature on it. Mr Malloy also said the police had beaten him and deprived him of food, drink, and sleep during the investigation. There were also claimed to be disclosure issues in the case (specifically evidence of unknown fingerprints that was not disclosed). The Court of Appeal concluded that the criminal justice process did not operate fairly in the case and so the convictions should be quashed.

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  • Offence: Murder Robbery / burglary
  • Jurisdiction: England & Wales
  • County: West Midlands 
  • Ethnicity: White
  • Gender: M
  • Years in prison: 18
  • Offence convicted of: Murder and aggravated burglary
  • Year of crime: 1978
  • Year of initial conviction: 1979
  • Year conviction was overturned: 1997
  • Age when imprisoned: 45
  • CCRC Referral: N
  • Tried with others: Y
  • Link to full case: https://www.bailii.org/ew/cases/EWCA/Crim/1997/2028.html
  • Type of fresh evidence at appeal: Evidence undermining the reliability of a confession, Evidence casting doubt on the integrity of police
  • Compensation: Yes
  • Crown argued case at CofA: No
  • Retrial: No
  • Previous appeals: Unsuccessful application for leave to appeal in 1981; unsuccessful appeal in 1989.